Connecting Grammatical Units

The Connectors
Phrase Connectors

Coordinating Conjunctions

Clause Connectors

Coordinating Conjunctions
Conjunctive Adverbs

Sentence Adverbs

Subordinating Conjunctions

Relative Pronouns
Relative Pro-determiners
Relative Pro-adverbs

Types of Prepositions
SimpleAgency: by, from
 Identification:about, from, like, of, with
 Measurements: Score / Dimension / Price / Rate: to, by, for, per
 Comparison: (equality, opposition) as, than, like, (similar) to, against,
 Manner: with, by, in, like, on
 Place: at, in, into, out, on, to, under, beside, above,
below, behind, near, among, between
 Direction: down, up, through, towards, from, along, across, into
 Time at, in, on, during, until, since, for, between, through, from, to,
 Reason: because of, in response to, in order (to )
 Purpose: for, as


according to, except for, instead of, next to, from under, out of, such as
Complex: in front of, on top of, on account of , in accordance with
Marginal: following, regarding, considering

Parts of Speech of Prepositional Complements
Preposition + Noun Phrase
in an hour
in the classroom
in fact
Preposition + Verbal Phrase
for [working hard]
Preposition + Noun Phrase + Verbal Phrase
for the driver to meet us

Preposition + Adverb
until recently
Preposition + Adjective
from bad to worse

Preposition + Noun Clause
with [what he said]

Connecting Phrases
Prepositions represent Relationships

Noun Phrase (Relationship Noun Phrase)
Noun Phrase (Relationship [Verbal Phrase])

Adjective Phrase [Relationship Noun Phrase
Adjective Phrase [Relationship [Verbal Phrase] ]

Verb Phrase [Relationship Noun Phrase]
Verb Phrase {Relationship Noun Phrase}
Verb Phrase Noun Phrase [Relationship [Verbal Phrase]]
Verb Phrase [Relationship Noun Phrase Verbal Phrase]

Clause [Relationship Noun Phrase]

sequenced vs. nested phrases
the students (of English) (in grade two)
the students (in the school (of Music))

Parts of Speech of Prepositional Phrases
the book (by a our teacher)
the man (in the big blue foreign car)
the view (on a nice day)
rode [in the big blue foreign car]
traveled [on a nice day]
the reward (for [working hard]) was promoted [for [working hard]]

Predicate AdjectivePredicate Adverb
We are {from Europe}
She looks {like her mother}
This book is {about grammar}
That play is {by Shakespeare}
She is {on the phone}
was written [by a our teacher]
We were [in Canada]
The cat is [under the bed]
The party was [on Saturday]
The class is [from six (to ten)]
 Adjective Adverb
am happy [about your decision]
Sentence Adverb
[Of course], I like ice cream.
[For [crying out loud]], calm down.

Combining Prepositions with Nouns
Preposition + Time Phrase
in the morning / at night
on Monday / in January
in 2013 / on December 25th
on the weekend / during the week
since yesterday / for one day
Preposition + Location Phrase
in the kitchen / at home
in the mirror / on the wall
get in the car / get on the bus
stand in the street / park on the street
at school / on campus
in the newspaper / on the menu
baby in the bed / pillow on the bed
Preposition + Abstract Phrase
in time / on time
in luck / at risk
in trouble / on probation
in business / on trial
in reality / on occasions
in a bad mood / on a whim
traveling by car / traveling on foot

Combining Nouns
Units of Things:
a cup (of coffee) / a loaf (of bread) /
a slice (of bread) a bar (of soap)
/ a flock (of birds) / a pair (of shoes)

a waste (of time) / a surge (of anger)
a fact (of life) / a round (of applause)
chances of success / formula for success
plan of action / reason for optimism
scene of the crime /

Combining Prepostions with Verbs
Prepositional Verbs
1.2 Verbs:
look [at the picture]
look [for the keys]
wait [for the bus]
wait [on customers]

believe [in
persist [in
succeed [in

insist [on
depend [on
focus [on

appeal [to
get [to
listen [to

More 1.2 Verbs
2.2 Verbs:
warned [of
accused [of
reminded [of

based [on
blamed [on
put [on
spent [on

introduced [to
brought [to
dedicated [to

More 2.2 Verbs

Combining Prepostions with Adjectives
anxious [about the future ]

eager [for success ]
happy [for you ]
sorry [for myself ]

afraid [of snakes ]
fond [of you ]
jealous [of him ]
sick [of work ]
sure [of it ]
thoughtful [of them

indifferent [to criticism ]
similar [to mine ]

angry [with you ]
concerned [about her health ]
excited [about tomorrow ]
worried [about money ]

amazed [at the size of it.
shocked [at the prices.
surprised [at his response

frightened [of the dogs.
tired [of the problems ]

opposed [to leaving early.

annoyed [with my neighbors ]
bored [with school
disappointed [with]
disgusted [with situation ]
fascinated [with her phone ]
frustrated [with the process ]
infatuated [with celebrities ]
irritated [with cheaters ]
satisfied [with the service ]
thrilled [with the decision ]

Compound Phrases

Coordinating: and, but, or, yet
Correlating: either...or / neither...nor / both...and

Compound Phrases
Any Grammatical Unit Relationship Same Type of Unit

I like bacon and eggs?
His speech was brief yet fascinating
Drive quickly but safely
Speak now or forever hold your peace.

We can either wait for the bus or take a taxi.
Neither a borrower nor a lender be.
Both the computer and the printer are broken.

Connecting Clauses
Coord. Conj. Clause Relationship Clause
Conjunctive Adv

Disjunctive Adv
Clause; Relationship Clause

Sentence. Relationship Clause

Subord. Conj.

Verb Phrase [Relationship Clause]
Verb Phrase [Relationship Clause]
Adverb [Relationship Clause]
Adverb Adjective [Relationship Clause]
Adjective Phrase [Relationship Clause]
Relative Pro-words

Noun (Subject or Object ...)
Verb [S / O] / (S / O) Predicate / Clause [S / O]
Noun (Pro-Modifier...)
Noun (Pro-Modifier ...)

Compound Sentences

Coordinating: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so - (F.A.N.B.O.Y.S. = 1st letters)
Correlating: either...or / neither...nor / whether...or / both...and

Compound Sentences
1.1+1.1 She made the dinner, and we washed the dishes.
00+0.2 She called, but you were away
1.1+1.1 You will refund our money or I will call the police.

0.0+0.0 Our bus left late, yet we arrived on time. (~but)
0.0-0.0+0.3-0.3a We'd fight and never lose, for we were young
and sure to have our way. (~because + and)
0.3+0.3 He is not afraid, nor am I.

2.5+2.5 Either you tell him to leave, or I will.

(Whether you tell him to leave, or she does) is not important.
1.1N- I don't know [whether it will rain or snow].

He likes pizza, and so do I.
0.3+0.3 We are hungry, and so are they.

Compound Sentences without Conjunctions
Conjunctive Adverbs
Contrasthowever, nonetheless, nevertheless, otherwise, still
Logical Sequence consequently, furthermore, so, then, therefore, thus

I wanted to see a scary movie; however, my friend wanted to see a comedy.
You need to concentrate on your studies; otherwise, you will fail the class.
The thunder and lightning were intense; consequently, the crowd dispersed.
Tag Questions:
1.1+1.1 She can't speak English, can she?

Americans call it an elevator; the British call it a lift.
Logical:The bigger they are; the harder they fall.

Sentence Adverbs
Disjunctive Adverbs , ,
ContrastHowever, Nonetheless, Nevertheless, Otherwise, Still
Logical SequenceAccordingly, Consequently, Furthermore,
Indeed, In fact, Moreover, so, Therefore, Thus
SequenceFirst, Firstly, Secondly, In conclusion, Finally, Lastly,
Time SequenceAfterwards, Next, Then, Thereafter
AdditionAdditionally, Anyway, Besides, In addition

I wanted to see a scary movie. However, my friend wanted to see a comedy.
You need to concentrate on your studies. Otherwise, you will fail the class.
The thunder and lightning were intense. Consequently, the crowd dispersed.

Complex Sentence Connectors
Dep. ClauseRelative PronounsRelative Pro-DeterminersRelative Pro-Adverbs
(Adjective Clause) who, whom, which, that whose when, where, why
[Noun Clause] who, whoever, whomever
what, whatever, whichever
whatever, whichever when, where, why, how, wherever,
[Adverb Clause]that, that, which, which    

[Noun Clause] and (Adj. C.)Subordinating Conjunctions
Possibility: that, if, whether,

[Adverb Clause]  
Intensity:Comparison or Degree:as, than, that
 Concession:although, though, even though
 Condition:if, unless, as long as, even if, only if, provided that, whether, no matter

Manner: as, as if, as though, like
Location: where, wherever
Time: after, as, before, once, since, until, when, whenever, while, as soon as

Reason: as, because, since, in case / so that, in order that

Adjective Clauses
Defining vs. Non-defining Clauses:
The woman (who arrived yesterday) is our English teacher.
Our English teacher, (who is a Canadian), also speaks French.

Omitting Relative Pronouns:
The question (which he asked) is important.
The woman (who they met) is a famous actress.

Relative Adverbs:
J0.3 The hotel (where we stayed) was beautiful.
J0.0 The days (when it rained) were wasted.
J0.0 The reason (why they were late) doesn't matter.
Relative Pro-determiners:
J1.1 The people (whose car was stolen) took a bus." / "whose car?" "The people's car.

Non-relative Adjective Clauses:
The belief (that there are UFOs) is becoming more common..
The idea (that he'll win the tournament ) is ridiculous.
The fact {that he lied} upset her.

Noun Clauses
(Whoever said that) was lying.
(What he said) surprised me.
(Wherever] they want [to eat) is OK with me.

I know [who ate my noodles].
I agree [with [what you said]].
I am sorry [about [what happened]].

Sunbordinate Conjunctions
I can't decide [if I should buy this].
(Whether you drive, or he drives) is unimportant.

0.4 The important thing is {that we are safe}.
2.2N She warned me [that he would eat my noodles].

Indirect Questions:
Do you know [when we will eat]?"
Can you remember [whether she was wearing a hat]?
Could you tell me [when the movie begins]?

What] do you think [happened?
Who]] do you suppose [she is waiting [for?"

I asked her [what her name was].

Adverb Clauses of Comparison
He is taller [than she is].

She drives faster [than I do]

I don't drive as fast [as she does].

It rained so hard [we stopped the car].

She is so angry [I'm afraid to call her].

He did such a good job [I gave him an extra ten dollars].

Adverb Clauses of Concession, Manner and Place
Clauses of Concession
He won't lend her any money [even though he's her friend].
They won't let us in [even though we have tickets].
[Though he is eighty yerars-old], he is still in very good health.
We chose to study history, [whereas they were required to].
My teacher was a Canadian, [while his was an Australian].

Clauses of Manner
He behaved [as if he owned the place].
She looks {as though she is worried}

Clauses of Place
With a cell phone, you can call me [wherever you are].
[Wherever she is], I will find her.
Go back [where] you came [from].
They sell ice cream [where he works].
That is the store (where he works).
Do you know [where he works]?

Clauses of Time
after, before, once, and until
[As soon as he leaves], we will call you.
[Once he starts playing his guitar], they will stop talking
I won't leave [until they have finished]

I was cooking dinner [while they were watching TV].

I've known her [since I was a child].
I haven't been eating any snacks [since I started this diet].
[Since you're not working tomorrow], you ought to go to the park.

Adverb Clauses of Reason and Condition
I'm not going to school [because I'm sick].
We watched TV [as there was nothing else to do].
[Since you're not working tomorrow], you ought to go to the park.
Take an umbrella [in case it rains].

Clauses of Purpose
He called [in order that we wouldn't worry].
He bought a computer [so that he could play games].

Clauses of Condition or Circumstance
I will leave tomorrow [unless it rains].
They can watch TV [as long as they do their homework].
[Even if you are a member of the team], you can't sit there.
They will rent you a bicycle, [provided that you leave your passport with them].

She will only go to the party [if Bob invites her].
She will go to the party [only if Bob invites her].
[If only Bob had invited her], she would have come to the party.

Loose vs. Periodic Sentences
Loose Sentence = Main Clause + Dependent Clauses
This book deserves no accolades, because the plot is cliche, the characters are stereotypes, and the prose is littered with grammatical and spelling mistakes.

Periodic Sentence = Dependent Clauses + Main Clause
"To believe your own thought, to believe that what is true for you in your private heart is true for all men, that is genius."
(Ralph Waldo Emerson, "Self-Reliance," 1841)

Variety, Efficiency, Eloquence

Connectors represent relationships between grammatical units.

Coordinating Conjunctions connect the same types of grammatical units:
    Noun + Noun, Phrase + Phrase, Clause + Clause
Adjunctive Adverbs also combine clauses in compound sentences.
Disjunctive Adverbs relate a clause to a previous sentence.

Prepositions connect words in Phrases
Subordinating Conjunctions connect clauses in complex sentences.

Prepositional Phrases can modify or complement nouns and verbs.
Prepositional Phrases complement Predicative Adjectives and their Adverbs
Subordinate Clauses modify nouns but complement or modify verbs.

Prepositions can be associated with the nouns that complement them and with the verbs and adjectives that they subordinate nouns to.

Past Continuous w/ Simple Past Conditionals Subjunctive 0 Connecting Grammatical Units
1 The Connectors
2 Types of Prepositions
3 Parts of Speech of Prepositional Complements
4 Parts of Speech of Prepositional Phrases
5 Prepositional Verbs
6 Prepositional Predicate Adjectives
7 Quantity Noun Phrases
8 Nested PPs
believe [in life (after death)] the son's daughter: the daughter (of my boss's son) is the son [of my boss]'s daughter. the daughter's son: the daughter [of my boss]'s son is the son (of my boss's daughter). Today is Friday, . 9 Types of
11 Conjunctive adverbs
16 Degree
17 Conditionals
comparisons Adjective Adverbial Prepositional Phrases
thoughtful of them!
are worried about them.
He isn't rich enough for her.
Nothing's good enough for them
Comparatives Telling Time
from eight o'clock to nine thirty
between six and seven o'clock
a drop (in the bucket) / the fact (of the matter) is a drop in the bucket / waste of time / the fact of the matter is
no point in doing anything / no reason for doing anything

Rather than leave now, we should wait for the
I would rather leave now than later / would rather have beef than pork.
Instead of leaving now, we should wait for the teacher.
I want mustard instead of ketchup.